Acta Microbiologica Hellenica 2017 (Volume 62, Issue 3)

Endophthalmitis post cataract surgery: A review of the literature

Irini Chatziralli1, Athanasios Chatzipantelis1, Georgia Vrioni2, Eleni Dimitriou1,Panagiotis Theodossiadis1

1.2nd Department of Ophthalmology, “Attikon” University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University
of Athens, Athens
2.Laboratory of Microbiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens

Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is an exogenous infectious ocular disease, which is caused
by pathogens, inserted intraocularly either during surgery or postoperatively. Several risk factors
have been identified for the development of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery and they
can be pre-, intra- or post-operative. Clinically patients with acute endophthalmitis after cataract
surgery present with pain, redness, purulent discharge and blurred vision, while lid, conjunctival
and corneal edema, vitritis and retinitis may also coexist. It is crucial to keep aseptic measures,
while guidelines for endophthalmitis prophylaxis have been proposed to reduce the risk of postoperative
endophthalmitis. Prompt diagnosis seems to be very important for the optimal management
and prognosis.

Key words:Endophthalmitis, cataract, prophylaxis, treatment,pathogens

Seroprevalence of measles in Northern Greece

Georgia Gioula1, Maria Exindari1, Aggeliki Melidou1, Fani Minti1, Eleni Sidiropoulou2,
Sofia Dionisopoulou2, Maria Kiriazi3, Eleftherios Tsintarakis4, Nikolaos Malisiovas1
1.Microbiology Department, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
2.Microbiology Department, “AHEPA” Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
3.1st Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
4.Microbiology Department, General Hospital of Didimotiho, Greece

The aim of the present study was to determine the current status of measles immunity in northern
Greece, in light of outbreaks in many European countries, while recently, there is an ongoing
measles outbreak in our country, affecting mostly Northern Greece. For the 611 sera tested (collected
during June 2014-January 2016, and age range 10 d. – 82 y.o.), the seropositivity rate to
measles virus was found to be 82.07%, while the total vaccination rate was 41.85%. The highest
rates of rubella seropositivity were found in the 41-50 year age group (100%) followed by the 51-
60 year age group (98.8%). Since mass infant vaccination was introduced in Greece in the form of
the National Immunization Program in 1989, it seems that most of these people acquired immunity
through exposure to the wild virus. It also demonstrates that there is high rate of protection
among older people. Moreover the high immunity rates in the age groups 4-6 indicates the high
level of protection in individuals belonging to these groups, mostly acquired through vaccination.
Since 2010, there has been no report from outbreaks in Greece, but sporadic cases are reported.
It is essential to continue epidemiological and virological surveillance of measles in Greece to
monitor the transmission pattern of the virus and the effectiveness of measles immunization,
which will eventually lead to the achievement of the goal for elimination.

Key words: measles, seroprevalence, N. Greece

The spectrum of simultaneously detected pathogens identified in infections by the FilmArray panels

Nikolaos J. Tsagarakis, Anthi Sideri, Panagiotis Makridis, Argyro Triantafyllou, Alexandra Stamoulakatou, Eleni Papadogeorgaki

Central Laboratories, Hygeia General Hospital, 4 Erythrou Stavrou Str. & Kifisias Avenue, Marousi, Athens, Greece

Aim of the study: It has been previously observed that the FilmArray Panel assays result in the simultaneous
detection of multiple pathogens. However, there is limited data on the frequency ofsuch simultaneous detections,
the prevalence of certain pathogens in such co-detections and the possible existence of specific patterns.
Materials and Methodology: In order to investigate the spectrum of multiple isolations in our patient series,
we have retrospectively looked at the results of all the samples which had been
processed with the FilmArray panel assays, during the last one year-period in our hospital.
Results: Among 1041 samples, 8.3% revealed multiple pathogens (>1), 8.7% of the respiratory
samples and 8.8% of the gastrointestinal samples. Human Rhinovirus/Enterovirus (HRV) and enteropathogenic
E.coli (EPEC) were the most frequent pathogens detected on multiple respiratory and gastrointestinal co-detections,
respectively, while the combinations of HRV/Adenovirus and EPEC/Campylobacter spp were the commonest.
Conclusions: Our patient series revealed that the application of the FilmArray panel assays had a
low, although significant, possibility of simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens, with HRV
and EPEC predominating in such samples. Further studies are needed to explore the clinical significance
of such pathogen-specific co-detections, arbitrarily named co-infections.

Key words: FilmArray, Multiple pathogens, multiplex PCR, co-infection, respiratory panel, gastrointestinal panel

Epidemiological study of bacteraemia of methicillin sensitive and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in a tertiary hospital

Eleni Ismyrli,1 Lemonia Skoura2, Charalampos Antachopoulos3, Emmanuel Roilidis3

1.Department of Microbiology, Hippokration Hospital,Thessaloniki
2.Department of Microbiology, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki
3.Third Department of Pediatrics, Aristotle University,, Hippokration Hospital, Thessaloniki

Aim of the study: The aim of this retrospective study, was to study the incidence of bacteraemia of
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin sensitive S. aureus-ΜSSA and methicillin resistant S. aureus-
MRSA) in a tertiary hospital and the relationship between bacteraemia of MRSA (MRSAB) and bacteraemia
of MSSA (MSSAB) with risk factors (age, gender, central venous catheter, immunosupression,
diabetes mellitus, haemodialysis and recent surgery), with antimicrobial resistance, as well as
with outcome (time to negativity of blood cultures, duration of hospitalization, fever, and 30 daymortality).
Material-Methods: During the period 2009-2014, at tertiary-care general hospital Hippokration of
Thessaloniki, demographics and relevant clinical data were retrieved from the database and crossreferenced
with the patients’medical files. Chi square and Fischer/s Exact test were used for comparison
of categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis and linear regression analysis were
also employed for determination of the relation between categoricals and categorical with continuous
variables .
Results: 60 patients were studied, 38 with bacteraemia of MSSA (63,3%), and 22 of MRSA (36,6%).
There was no statistically significant difference between MRSAB and MSSAB in risk factors, with
the exception of recent surgery(more frequent among MRSAB, P=0,001). Additionally there was
no significant difference between MRSAB and MSSAB, in time to negativity of blood cultures, duration
of hospitalization and fever, as well as in 30-day mortality. There were no strains of MRSA
and ΜSSA with resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, daptomycin and tigecyclin. Conclusions:
MRSAB and MSSAB share common risk factors and exhibit similar outcome. Recent
surgery is more common among patients with MRSAB.

Key words:Bacteraemia, methicillin sensitive S.aureus-ΜSSΑ,methicillin resistant S. aureus-MRSA, 
risk factors,outcome, antimicrobial therapy

The introduction of DDT (Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane) in the Greek antimalarial fight during the period 1945-1949

Constantinos Tsiamis1, Georgia Vrioni1, Kalliopi Theodoridou1, Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou2,
Athanassios Tsakris1

1.Department of Microbiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
2.Department of History of Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens,

The study presents the introduction of the DDT (Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane) during the
third phase of the Greek antimalarial fight, after the end of the Second World War. The material
is derived from the archive of United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA),
the personal archive of Colonel Daniel Wright, head of the UNRRA Department of Malaria in
Greece, and the Reports of the Department of Malaria of National School of Public Health (Ministry
of Health Archive, General State Archives). At the end of the Second World War, malaria was
a serious hygienic problem in Greece. According to the international organizations’ data, 87% of
the country’s territory had malaria, while the patients amounted to three million. According to
the Greek data, the malaria epidemics mainly detected Plasmodium falciparum, while in the endemic
areas P. vivax and P. malariae. In addition, Greece had the particularity of the existence of
mosquitoes Anopheles superpictus whose biological cycle extended the periods of epidemic
waves until October. The advent of UNRRA and the introduction of DDT changed the form of antimalarial
fight with amazing results. Despite the problems and the scientific controversies that
had arisen, it is timeless the lesson of the proper epidemiological control and constant vigilance
for the preservation of public health.

Key words
DDT, Greece, history of Microbiology, malaria,Public Health