Dyslipidemia; diagnosis and therapeutic approach

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina, Greece

As dyslipidemia comprises a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, its early diagnosis and
effective treatment is crucial. Hellenic Heart SCORE is a very useful tool that defines the cardiovascular
risk and sets the targets of hypolipidemic treatment. Undoubtedly, statins are the cornerstone
of dyslipidemia treatment and may be co-administered with fenofibrate, omega 3 fatty
acids, colesevelam or ezetimibe.

Key words
Dyslipidemia, diagnosis, treatment

Origin of human mycobacterial tuberculosis infection in America, as evidenced by molecular data

Ε. Κοnstantinidou1, K. Konstantopoulos2

1Department of Μicrobiology, Chest Hospital, Athens, Greece
2Haematological Clinic, Medical School, University of Athens, “Laiko” General Hospital, Athens, Greece

We discuss the topic of origin of mycobacterial tuberculosis in America under the recent molecular
data. Namely, sea mammals seem as having played a role in transmitting the disease to humans
long before America was approached by the Europeans. The current genomic and taxonomic analysis
of mycobacteria species, favour such a zoonotic transfer event from pinnipeds to humans between
700 and 1000 AD. A lot of information for the history of the diseases and for the movements
of the populations can be gathered by analogous genome sequencing data via bioinformatics.

Key words
M. bovis, M. pinnipedii, Μ. tuberculosis,origin, molecular data

HIV infection in children: achievements, concerns, expectations

K. Theodoridou, V. Kapsimali, A. Tsakris
Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

HIV infection has been a major problem for public health since the first report of the disease in
1982.The scientific knowledge about the infection was limited and the size of the problem unknown,
while fear and prejudice were predominant. The transmission of HIV virus was related with
sexual contact, contaminated blood or blood products and through perinatal transmission. The infection
through transfusions of blood or blood products was particularly important for our country
with the cohorts of multi-transfused persons and ended in 1985 with the implementation of PCR
method in blood banks. The 1994 Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) protocol 076 demonstrated
that Zidovudine (ZVD) therapy administered to selected HIV-infected pregnant women and
their newborn infants reduced the rate of perinatal HIV transmission from 25% to 8% and was the
first major prevention breakthrough in the HIV epidemic. The rapid implementation of the guidelines
for the use of ZDV has resulted in a dramatic decrease in perinatal HIV transmission. Nowadays,
with combination therapy of pregnant women and administration two or three antiretroviral drugs
to the newborn the transmission rate has decreased to <2%.
In Greece the rate of HIV infected pregnant women is low (0,001) but enhanced perinatal surveillance
is needed. Today HIV infection is characterized as a chronic infectious disease. Treatment advances
with combination therapies have increased survival of HIV infected children. As a result,
more children are living with HIV infection that needs treatment, care and services. Perinatally infected
children are aging into adolescence. The expectations for the future are the achievements
of treating HIV infection to reach the developing countries and an effective vaccine for prevention
to be invented.

Key words
HIV, perinatal HIV transmission,antiretroviral treatment

The evolution of the Greek Microbiology through a bibliometric study of the publications of Acta Microbiologica Hellenica (1956-2014): Part B (1980-1999)

C. Tsiamis1, G. Vrioni1, E. Vogiatzakis2, A. Tsakris1
1Department of Microbiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
2Department of Microbiology, General Chest Hospital “Sotiria”, Athens, Greece

The aim of the study is the presentation of the evolution of Greek Microbiology through the articles
of the Official Journal of the Hellenic Microbiological Society, “Acta Microbiologica Hellenica”.
The study presents the articles in the spectrum of the infectious diseases of every decade
with the help of indexing and bibliometrics of 1,558 articles during the period 1956-2014. During
the period 1980-1989, the articles were identified with the problems of Public Health in Greece,
such as the hospital infections. Also, during this period the main interest of the articles are the
Gram-negative aerobic bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. The microorganisms primarily identified
were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella serotype Εnteritidis, Neisseria meningitidis,
Shigella spp., Proteus vulgaris και Cambylobacter jejuni. During the period 1990-1999, the
research was focused on the hospital infections and a spectrum of microorganisms such as
Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella serotype Εnteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa και Escherichia
coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Enterobacter spp, Naisseria meningitides, Κlebsiella pneumoniae,
Proteus vulgaris, Campylobacter jejuni, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumonia, Brucella
melitensis και Helicobacter pylori. During the period, the favorite subject of Virology was the disease
of hepatitis and the research of HAV, HBV, HCV. It seems that during the period 1980-1999,
the journal follows the scientific timeliness and the serious infectious diseases of the country,
mainly the hospital infections.

Key words
Acta Microbiologica Hellenica, bibliometrics,history of microbiology

Kingella kingae bacteremia in an otherwise healthy infant

K. Tsiveriotis1, N. Charalampaki1, J. Papaparaskevas3, P. Giannopoulou1, I. Grafakos1, P. Korovesi2,
A. Tsakris3, E. Trikka1
1Department of Microbiology and 2Pediatric Clinic, Thriassio Hospital, Elefsina, Greece
3Department of Microbiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens,

In recent years, Kingella kingae is increasingly recognized as an invasive pathogen in young children,
mainly causing osteoarticular infections, bacteremia and endocarditis. A case of K. kingae
bacteremia in an otherwise healthy infant is described. An 8-month old female infant presented
with fever, cough and nasal congestion. Six hours after admission the clinical picture deteriorated
with the development of tachypnea, tachycardia and high grade fever. WBC count, C-reactive
protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate rapidly increased. Empirical IV ceftriaxone therapy
was initiated. Parenteral fluids, oral corticosteroids and bronchodilators were additionally administered.
K. kingaewas detected in blood cultures, by using the BACTEC (BD, USA) automated
system. Laboratory diagnosis was based on typical culture characteristics of the bacterium, on
Phoenix automated system (BD, USA) and was confirmed by sequencing of 16S r-RNA gene. The
transesophangeal ultrasound was normal. The infection resolved completely after 10-days treatment,
without any complication. In conclusion, upper respiratory tract infections often coincide
with K. kingae disease. Clinical Microbiologists should be aware of the difficulties in recovery
and identification of the bacterium. Potential serious complications necessitate prompt initiation
of antibiotic therapy and close monitoring of patients with K. kingae infections.

Key words
Kingella kingae, children, bacteremia, endocarditis