The major role of cytokines in the immune response –Modern immunotherapies in clinical practice
Evangelia Papadopoulou, Maria Anna Kyriazidi, Asimoula Kavvada, Stella Mitka, Maria Chatzidimitriou, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Cytokines are defined as low molecular weight protein molecules that play a significant role in
the immune response. They are divided into six groups: interleukines, interferons, tumor necrosis
factors, growth factors, colony stimulating factors, chemokines. Cytokines are produced by numerous
cell types, such as mononuclear-macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs),
mast cells and endothelial cells as well as fibroblasts. Their action aims at various cell populations,
since cytokines are regulatory mediators of both natural and acquired immunity as well as of
inflammation. Cytokines’ impact on target cells requires their connection with specific membrane
receptors on the cells. The signal eventually reaches the cells’ nucleus after complicated chemical
reactions with the participation of tyrosine kinases and transcription factors. The differentiation,
proliferation and generally the functional alterations that target cells undergo after the influence
of cytokines, make the immune response to adjust to organism’s needs in order to eradicate
the pathogenic factor. Thus, cytokines play a significant role in both the progress and the
outcome of the immune response. On the basis of this, cytokines find excellent application into
immunotherapies for many diseases over the last few years. Although many trials require further
research, cytokines are proven to be valuable molecules in the manipulation of the immune response.
Taking this into consideration, cytokines are used as biological markers for the prognosis
and diagnosis of diseases as well as for therapeutic purposes. The US Food and Drug Administration
has already approved of many immunotherapies such as those for AIDS, multiple sclerosis,
rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis B-C, T cell leukemia, septic shock, Kaposi’s sarcoma, melanoma.
Their application broadens at the extension of transplant life expectancy on experimental
models. Despite the encouraging results of cytokines in clinical practice, challenges still exist
concerning the side effects and the administrated doses of medication for each patient. Modern
trials demand additional research aiming at the invention of safer and more efficient cytokine
immunotherapy methods in the future.
Key words: cytokines, immunotherapy, biological markers
The Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial Nasal Carriage at a Saudi University Hospital
Raied A. Badierah1, Zuhair S. Natto2, Majed S. Nassar3, Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi1,4, Asif A. Jiman-Fatani5,6,
Muhammed A. Bakhrebah3 1Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;
2Department of Dental Public Health, School of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;
3Life Science and Environment Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
4Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;
5Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. 6Clinical and Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
The objective of our study was to identify the nasal carriage of common and novel nosocomial
pathogens that may occur in the patients of an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a Saudi university
hospital.Nasal swabs taken from 95 randomly selected patients were used as clinical specimens, which
were plated onto blood, MacConkey, and chocolate agars. Thereafter, these pathogens were
grown, they were identified using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight
mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and tested for antimicrobial-susceptibility using an automated
VITEK2 system (bioMerieux).
Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most prevalent species, accounting for 16 (16.84%) isolates.
Gentamicin was the most effective antibiotic against Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole
A was the least effective antibiotic against K. pneumonia.
In conclusion, the AMR bacteria isolated from the nasal swabs showed different resistance patterns
compared to those in other studies in Saudi Arabia. This data could assist healthcare practitioners
to prescribe the most effective and appropriate antibiotics, and it also provides
information upon which infection control plans, which are critical for outbreak prevention, can
Key words: Bacterial nasal carriage; hospital-acquired bacteria; antibiotic resistance
Comparison of Antibacterial Activities of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) and Pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) Leaves Alcoholic Extracts against Bacteria Isolated from Burn Wound Infections
Yaser Nozohour1, Reza Golmohammadi1, Reza Mirnejad1, Mehrdad Moosazadeh Moghaddam2,
1Molecular Biology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University,
The threat of infections caused by drug resistant microorganisms is a global problem, so it is
essential to carry out research on alternative antimicrobial drugs. Burn wound is an ideal environment
for the development of drug resistant microorganisms. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) and
pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) leaves are ancient plants with phytochemical biological compounds.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial effects of walnut and pine leaves al-
coholic extracts against bacteria isolated from burn wounds infections, and compare them
with selected antibiotics. Accordingly, the ethanolic extracts of walnut and pine leaves were
prepared, analyzed using Agilent 7890B gas chromatography, and main phytochemicals compounds
of them were identified. The antibacterial activities of alcoholic extracts against clinical
isolates (n=6 isolates for each bacteria) and standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus
epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticuswere determined by agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The result
of this study showed that the walnut and pine leaves extract had antimicrobial activity
against all above clinical isolates. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that the walnut
leaves extract had more antibacterial activities than pine leaves extract, but generally, both
extracts were able to compete with the selected antibiotics of this study.
Key words: Antibacterial, Alcoholic extracts, Juglans regia L, Pinus halepensis Mill, Burn wound infection
In vitro antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum verum, Allium sativum, and Zingiber officinale extracts on metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A potential therapeutic approach
Neda Yousefi Nojookambari1, Gita Eslami1, Ali Hashemi1, Mehrzad Sadredinamin1, Samira Tarashi2,3,
Mahdane Roshani4, Sajjad Yazdansetad5,6
1Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
3Microbiology Research Center (MRC), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
4Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.
5Laboratory Sciences Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.
6Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.
Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial
infections, especially in burn patients worldwide. The antimicrobial properties of Cinnamomum
verum, Allium sativum, and Zingiber officinale known as cinnamon, garlic, and ginger,
respectively have not yet been reported on P. aeruginosa producing metallo-β-lactamase. The
present study aimed to detect MBL genes and evaluate the inhibitory effect of cinnamon, garlic
and ginger extracts on MBL-producing P. aeruginosa.Antibiotic resistance pattern of MBL-producing
- aeruginosa isolates was evaluated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. MBL-producing isolates
were phenotypically tested by combineddisk test (CDT). The prevalence of blaVIM and blaIMP genes
encoding metallo-β-lactamase wasdetected by PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the
acetonic, methanolic, and chloroformic extracts of cinnamon, garlic, and ginger on MBL-producing
isolates was evaluated by the broth microdilution method.
Eighty-one out of 95 (85.2%) imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were MBL-producing.
Thirteen out of 81 (16.0%) and 18 out of 81 (22.2%) MBL-producing P. aeruginosa were positive
for blaIMP and blaVIM genes, respectively. The inhibitory concentrations of the acetonic, methanolic,
and chloroformic extracts of cinnamon, garlic, and ginger ranged from ?1.50 mg/ml to
We find that the methanolic extract of cinnamon and garlic as well as the acetonic extract of
ginger has significant antibacterial activity against the MBL-producing P. aeruginosa. These medicinal
plants can be considered as a source of forgotten antimicrobial agents to avoid treatment
failure and mortality.
Key words: Burns, Cinnamon, Garlic, Ginger,Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Human bocavirus single infections and co-infections with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Rotavirus in children with acute respiratory or gastrointestinal infections
Mehrdad Mohammadi1, Shahnaz Armin2
1MSc, Department of Microbiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
2Pediatric Infections Research Center, Mofid Children’s Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,
Tehran, IR Iran.
Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been reported in the respiratory and stool samples in pediatric
infections. The aims of study were to find the correlation between of HBoV single and co-infections
in respiratory and gastrointestinal cases. This report was in the period 2017–2018 that
involved children less than 3 years old, who admitted to Mofid Children’s Hospital in the center
of Iran in Tehran. At first, the respiratory and stool samples tested for the RSV and Rotavirus by
RT-PCR respectively and then all samples tested for the NP-1 gene of HBoV by PCR. The 67 out
of 500 respiratory samples (13.4%) and 72 out of 500 stool samples (14.4%) were positive of
HBoV. The 44 (65.6%) of respiratory samples have co-infection with RSV and 45 (62.5%) of stool
samples have co-infection with Rotavirus. The HBoV infections emerged often as co-infections
with other viral agents.
Key words: human bocavirus; viral infections; co-infections